examples.ml 48 KB
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let examples = [ "qatt1","type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
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type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
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let biblio = [doc]/Book;;
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<bib>
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    select <book (a)> x
      from <book (a)>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;

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(*This expression returns all book in bib but removoing the editor element. If one wants to write more explicitly:
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*)
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    select <book (a)> x
      from <book (a)>[ (x::(Any\<editor ..>_)|_ )* ] in biblio;;
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(*
Or even:
*)
    select <book (a)> x
      from <book (a)>[ (x::(<(_\`editor) ..>_)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;
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";"qatt2","type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
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type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     

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(*
Back to the first one:
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*)
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<bib>
    select <book (a)> x
      from <(book) (a)>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;
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(*
This query takes any element in bib, tranforms it in a book element and removes sub-elements editor, but you will get a warning as capture variable book in the from is never used: we should have written <(_) (a)> instead of <(book) (a)> the from
*)
    select <(book) (a)> x
      from <(book) (a)>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;
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";"qatt3","type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
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type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
(*
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Same thing but without tranforming tag to \"book\".
More interestingly:
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*)


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    select <(b) (a\id)> x
      from <(b) (a)>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;
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(*
removes all \"id\" attribute (if any) from the attributes of the element in bib.
*)
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    select <(b) (a\id+{bing=a.id})> x
      from <(b) (a)>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;

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(*
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Changes attribute id=x into bing=x However, one must be sure that each element in bib has an id attribute if such is not the case the expression is ill-typed. If one wants to perform this only for those elements which certainly have an id attribute then:
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*)


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    select <(b) (a\id+{bing=a.id})> x
      from <(b) (a&{id=_})>[ (x::(Any\Editor)|_ )* ] in biblio ;;
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";"xml","(* Syntax for XML elements *)
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type A = <a x=String y=?String>[ B* ]
type B = <b>[ PCDATA A? PCDATA ]
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let x : A = 
 <a x=\"Bla\" y=\"Blo\">[ 
   <b>[ 'blabla' ]
   <b>[ 
     <a x=\"Foo\">[] 'bla' 'bla' 
   ] 
 ]
";"functions","(* Simple functions can be defined this way: *)
let f1 (x : Int) : Int = x + 3
;;
f1 5
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(* With several arguments: *)
let f2 (x : Int, y : Int) : Int = x + y
;;
f2 (10,20)
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(* Currified form *)
let add (x : Int) (y : Int) : Int = x + y
;;
add 10 20
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(* You may directly deconstruct the arguments: *)
type A = <a href=String>String
let f3 (<a href=url>txt : A) : String = url @ \"=>\" @ txt
;;
f3 <a href=\"http://www.cduce.org\">\"CDuce homepage\";;
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(* In general, if you want to specify several arrow types, or
   use several pattern matching branches, you have the general
   form: *)

let f4 (A -> String; ['0'--'9'+] -> Int)
| x & A -> f3 x
| x -> int_of x
;;
f4 \"123\"
";"mutrec","(* Adjacent type declarations are mutually recursive *)
type T = <t>S
type S = [ (Char | T)* ]
let x : S = [ 'abc' <t>['def'] 'ghi' ]

(* Similarly for toplevel function definitions *)

let f (x : Int) : Int = g x
let g (x : Int) : Int = 3
let a = 2
let h (x : Int) : Int = f x
   (* f and g are mutually recursive, but they cannot use h *)
";"sequence","(* Sequence are just defined with pairs and the atom `nil;
   the following notation are equivalent: *)
let l1 = (1,2,3,`nil)
let l2 = (1,(2,(3,`nil)))
let l3 = [ 1 2 3 ]

(* The [...] notation allow to specify a tail after a semi-colon : *)
let l4 = (10,20,l1)
let l5 = [ 10 20 ; l1 ]

(* Concatenation @ *)
let l6 = [ 1 2 3 ] @ [ 4 5 6 ]

(* Inside [...], it is possible to escape a subsequence with a ! *)
let l7 = [ 1 2 !l6 !l1 5 ]
";"seqtypes","(* Sequence types are defined with regular expression over types *)
type IntList = [ Int* ]
type IntStringList = [ (Int String)* ]
type IntNonEmptyList = [ Int+ ]

let l : IntList = [ 1 2 3 ]
";"integers","(* Yes, CDuce can handle large integers! *)
let facto (Int -> Int)
 | 0 | 1 -> 1
 | n -> n * (facto (n - 1))
in
facto 300

(* The tail-recursive way *)
let facto ((Int,Int) -> Int)
 | (x, 0 | 1) -> x
 | (x, n) -> facto (x * n, n - 1)
in
facto (1,10000)
";"sumtype","type Expr = 
    (`add, Expr, Expr)
  | (`mul, Expr, Expr)
  | (`sub, Expr, Expr)
  | (`div, Expr, Expr)
  | Int
 
let eval ( Expr -> Int )  
  | (`add,x,y) -> eval x + eval y
  | (`mul,x,y) -> eval x * eval y
  | (`sub,x,y) -> eval x - eval y
  | (`div,x,y) -> (eval x) div (eval y)
  | n -> n 
in
eval (`add, 10, (`mul, 20, 5))
";"ovfun","type Person = FPerson | MPerson 
type FPerson = <person gender = \"F\" >[ Name Children (Tel | Email)?] 
type MPerson = <person gender=\"M\">[ Name Children (Tel | Email)?] 
type Children = <children>[Person*] 
type Name = <name>[ PCDATA ]
type Tel = <tel kind=?\"home\"|\"work\">['0'--'9'+ '-' '0'--'9'+]
type Email = <email>[PCDATA '@' PCDATA]

type Man = <man name=String>[ Sons Daughters ]
type Woman = <woman name=String>[ Sons Daughters ]
type Sons = <sons>[ Man* ]
type Daughters = <daughters>[ Woman* ]

let split (MPerson -> Man ; FPerson -> Woman)
  <person gender=g>[ <name>n <children>[(mc::MPerson | fc::FPerson)*]; _] ->
     let tag = match g with \"F\" -> `woman | \"M\" -> `man in
     let s = map mc with x -> split x in
     let d = map fc with x -> split x in
     <(tag) name=n>[ <sons>s  <daughters>d ] 
 

let base : Person = 
<person gender=\"F\">[ 
  <name>\"Themis\"
  <children>[ 
    <person gender=\"M\">[
      <name>\"Prometheus\"
      <children>[
        <person gender=\"M\">[
          <name>\"Deucalion\"
          <children>[]
        ]
      ]
      <email>\"focifero@olympus.com\"
    ] 
    <person gender=\"M\">[
      <name>\"Epimetheus\"
      <children>[]
      <tel> \"314-1592654\"
    ]
  ] 
  <tel kind=\"home\"> \"271-828182\"
]
in
split base
";"note","type Doc = <doc>Text
type Text = [ (Char | (Letter+ ' '* Note))* ]
type Letter = 'a'--'z' | 'A'--'Z'
type Note = <note>[ PCDATA ]

type Flow = [ (Char | <ref no=Int>[ PCDATA ])* ]
type Notes = [ <note no=Int>[ PCDATA ]* ]
type Result = <doc>[ <body>Flow <notes>Notes ]

let format (<doc>s : Doc) : Result = 
  let (body,notes) = text (s,1) in
  <doc>[ <body>body <notes>notes ]

let text ( (Text,Int) -> (Flow,Notes) )
 | ([ pre::Char*? (word::Letter+ ' '* <note>n); rem ], count) ->
      let (body,notes) = text (rem, count + 1) in
      (pre @ [<ref no=count>word] @ body, 
       [<note no=count>n] @ notes)
 | (body,_) -> (body, [])

let src : Doc = <doc>[ 'CDuce ' <note>\"Frisch, Castagna, Benzaken\"
		 ' is an XML ' <note>\"a W3C standard\"
		 '-friendly programming language.' ]
in
format src
";"biblio","type Biblio  = <bibliography>[Heading Paper*]
type Heading = <heading>[ PCDATA ]
type Paper   = <paper>[ Author+ Title Conference File ]
type Author  = <author>[ PCDATA ]
type Title   = <title>[ PCDATA ]
type Conference = <conference>[ PCDATA ]
type File    = <file>[ PCDATA ]

(* Simplified HTML *)
type Html  = <html>[ <head>[ <title>[ PCDATA ] ]  <body>Mix ]
type Mix   = [ ( <h1>Mix | <a href=String>Mix | <p>Mix | <em>Mix 
	       | <ul>[ <li>Mix +] | Char )* ]

let do_authors ([Author+] -> Mix)
 | [ <author>a ] -> a
 | [ <author>a <author>b ] -> a @ \" and, \" @ b
 | [ <author>a; x] -> a @ \", \" @ (do_authors x)

let do_paper (Paper -> <li>Mix)
  <paper>[ x::_* <title>t <conference>c <file>f ] ->
    <li>[ <a href=f>t !(do_authors x) '; in ' <em>c '.' ]

let do_biblio (Biblio -> Html)
  <bibliography>[ <heading>h; p ] ->
      let body = match p with
      | [] -> \"Empty bibliography\"
      | l -> [ <h1>h <ul>(map l with x -> do_paper x) ]
      in    
      <html>[ <head>[ <title>h ] <body>body ]

let bib : Biblio = 
  <bibliography>[
    <heading>\"Alain Frisch's bibliography\"
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <author>\"Giuseppe Castagna\"
      <author>\"Véronique Benzaken\"
      <title>\"Semantic subtyping\"
      <conference>\"LICS 02\"
      <file>\"semsub.ps.gz\"
    ]
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini\"
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <author>\"Elio Giovannetti\"
      <author>\"Yoko Motohama\"
      <title>\"The Relevance of Semantic Subtyping\"
      <conference>\"ITRS'02\"
      <file>\"itrs02.ps.gz\"
    ]
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Véronique Benzaken\"
      <author>\"Giuseppe Castagna\"
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <title>\"CDuce: a white-paper\"
      <conference>\"PLANX-02\"
      <file>\"planx.ps.gz\"
    ]
 ]
in
do_biblio bib
";"projection","(* The projection  e/t   is translated to:
   transform e with [ (x::t|_)* ]  -> x *)

type Biblio  = <bibliography>[Heading Paper*]
type Heading = <heading>[ PCDATA ]
type Paper   = <paper>[ Author+ Title Conference File ]
type Author  = <author>[ PCDATA ]
type Title   = <title>[ PCDATA ]
type Conference = <conference>[ PCDATA ]
type File    = <file>[ PCDATA ]

let bib : Biblio = 
  <bibliography>[
    <heading>\"Alain Frisch's bibliography\"
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <author>\"Giuseppe Castagna\"
      <author>\"Véronique Benzaken\"
      <title>\"Semantic subtyping\"
      <conference>\"LICS 02\"
      <file>\"semsub.ps.gz\"
    ]
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini\"
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <author>\"Elio Giovannetti\"
      <author>\"Yoko Motohama\"
      <title>\"The Relevance of Semantic Subtyping\"
      <conference>\"ITRS'02\"
      <file>\"itrs02.ps.gz\"
    ]
    <paper>[
      <author>\"Véronique Benzaken\"
      <author>\"Giuseppe Castagna\"
      <author>\"Alain Frisch\"
      <title>\"CDuce: a white-paper\"
      <conference>\"PLANX-02\"
      <file>\"planx.ps.gz\"
    ]
 ]

let titles = [bib]/<paper>_/<title>_
let authors = [bib]/<paper>_/<author>_
let titles_concat = [bib]/<paper>_/<title>_/Char
";"xtransform","(* For the purpose of the example we can consider this hugely
   simplified definition of Xhtml
*)

type Flow = Char | Block | Inline  ;;
type Block = P | Heading | Lists | Blocktext | Char
type Lists = Ul
type Blocktext = Pre |  Address | Center;;
type Inline = Char | A | Fontstyle
type Fontstyle = Tt | I | B | Big | Small;;

type Xhtml = <html>[ Head Body ];;
type Head = <head>[ Title <link>[ ]];;
type Title = <title>[ PCDATA ];;
type Body = <body bgcolor=?String>[ Block* ];;

type P = <p>[ Inline* ];;
type Heading = <(`h1 | `h2 | `h3 | `h4)>[ Inline* ];;

type Ul = <ul>[Li+];;
type Li = <li>[ Flow* ];;

type Address = <address>[ Inline* ];;
type Pre = <pre>[ (PCDATA | A | Fontstyle)* ];;
type Center = <center>[ Block* ];;

type A = <a ({ name = String } | { href = String })>[ (Inline)* ];;
type Tt = <tt>[ Inline* ];;
type I = <i>[ Inline* ];;
type B = <b>[ Inline* ];;
type Big = <big>[ Inline* ];;
type Small = <small>[ Inline* ];;
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(* xtransform matches the patterns against the root element of each
   XML tree and, if it fails, it recursively applies itself to the
   sequence of sons of the root.

   It can be used to put in boldface all the links of an XHTML
   document as follows
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*)

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let bold (x:[Xhtml]):[Xhtml] = xtransform x with <a (y)>t -> [ <a (y)>[<b>t] ]
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(* let us apply the function to a document where links appear
   at different depths
*)
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let doc : Xhtml =
  <html>[
    <head>[<title>\"Example\" <link>[]]
    <body>[
      <h2>['You can have links ' <a href=\"here\">\"here\"]
      <pre>['Or they can be down']
      <ul>[
        <li>['In ' <a name=\"list\">\"lists\" ' for instance']
	<li>['or you oddly decided to ' 
             <center>[<p>[<a href=\"what?\">\"center\"]] 
             ' them '
            ]
      ]
      <address>[
        'and even if they are in fancy ' <a name=\"address\">\"address boxes\"
      ]
      <p>[
          'nevertheless ' <a href=\"http://www.cduce.org\">\"Cduce\" ' and '
          <a href=\"xtransform\">[<tt>\"xtransform\"] 
          ' will put all links in bold so that when'
          ' you program your transformation you '
          <big>[<a name=\"\">\" don't \" ] ' have to worry about it'
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     ]
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   ]
  ];;
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bold [doc];;
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let [x] = bold [doc] in print_xml x;;
";"reference","(* In CDuce the expression  \"ref T exp\" returns a reference  *)
(* to the result of \"exp\" and has type \"ref T\" provided that *)
(* \"exp\" is of type \"T\". References come equipped with three *)
(* operators: \":=\" (assignment), \"!\" (dereferencing), and \";\"*) 
(* (sequencing).                                             *)
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let stack = ref [Int*] []

let fun push(x : Int) : []  = 
  stack := [x; !stack]
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let fun pop ([] : []) : Int = 
  match !stack with [x; y] -> stack := y; x | _ -> raise \"Empty stack\"
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(* In a pattern [ ... ; y] the variable y captures the tail  *)
(* of the sequence. It is equivalent to [ ... y::_*].        *)
(* In an expression [ ... ; e ] the expression e denotes the *)
(* tail of the sequence. It is equivalent to [ ... ] @ e     *)


;;

push 1;;
push 2;;
push 3;;
pop [];;
pop [];;
pop [];;
pop [];;
";"pm_compil","(* This example demonstrates the efficient compilation of pattern
   matching. *)

type A = <a>[ Int* ]
type B = <b>[ Char* ]

(* Imagine we want to compile the following function:
   fun ([A+|B+] -> Bool) [A+] -> 0 | [B+] -> 1

   For an arbitrary value, it is expensive to check whether it has
   type [A+] or not. But if we know statically that it has type [A+|B+],
   we just have to check the tag of the first element !

   This is demonstrated by the following internal debugging feature.
   The syntax is:  

   debug compile T P1 ... Pn

   where T is the input type (static information about the matched
   value) and P1,...,Pn are the patterns to compile (simultaneously).

   The \"debug compile\" instruction displays an human-readable
   representation of the automaton corresponding to the pattern
   matching. Note: in actual evaluation, this automaton is build
   lazily (= on-the-fly, = JIT).
*)

debug compile [A+|B+] [A+] [B+]


(* You can see on the output that the pattern matching is actually
   compiled as:

   fun ([A+|B+] -> Int) [ <a>_ ; _ ] -> 0 | _ -> 1
*)
";"q1","
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type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
661 662 663 664 665 666 667
	     
	     
(*
-----------------------------Q1-----------------------------
List books published by Addison-Wesley after 1991, including their year and title.
------------------------------------------------------------

668
<bib>
669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677
 {
  for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")/bib/book
  where $b/publisher = \"Addison-Wesley\" and $b/@year > 1991
  return
    <book year=\"{ $b/@year }\">
     { $b/title }
    </book>
 }
</bib> 
678 679 680

*)
<bib>
681 682 683 684
select <book year=y>([b]/Title)
from b in [doc]/<book .. >[_* <publisher>\"Addison-Wesley\";_] , 
     y in [b]/@year 
where 1991<<int_of(y);;
685

686 687 688 689 690 691 692
<bib> 
select <book year=y> t 
from <bib>[b::Book*] in [doc], 
     <book year=y .. >[t::Title _+ <publisher>\"Addison-Wesley\";_] in b 
where 1991 << int_of(y);;

";"q2","
693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
736 737
	     
	     
738
(*
739 740 741
---------------------------Q2---------------------------------
Create a flat list of all the title-author pairs, with each pair enclosed in a \"result\" element.
--------------------------------------------------------------
742 743 744

<results>
  {
745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752
    for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")/bib/book,
        $t in $b/title,
        $a in $b/author
    return
        <result>
            { $t }    
            { $a }
        </result>
753
  }
754
</results>
755

756
*)
757

758 759 760 761
<results>
select <result>([b]/Title @ [a]) 
from b in [doc]/Book,
     a in [b]/Author ;;
762 763


764 765 766 767 768
<results>
 select <result>[t a] 
 from <bib>[b::Book+] in [doc], 
      <book ..>[t&Title la::Author+ ;_] in b,
      a in la ;;
769

770
";"q3","
771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
	     
(*
816 817 818 819
---------------------------Q3---------------------------------
For each book in the bibliography, list the title and authors, grouped inside a \"result\" element.
--------------------------------------------------------------
<results>
820
{
821 822 823
    for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")/bib/book
    return
        <result>
824
            { $b/title }
825 826
            { $b/author  }
        </result>
827
}
828 829
</results> 

830 831 832

*)

833 834 835
<results>
select <result> ([b]/Title @ [b]/Author )
from b in [doc]/Book;;
836 837 838



839 840 841 842 843
<results>
select <result>(t @ a)
from <bib>[b::Book*] in [doc],
     <book ..>[t::Title (a::Author+|_)* ;_] in b
;;
844 845 846 847




848 849
";"q4","
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
891 892
	     
	     
893
(*
894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903
--------------------------------Q4------------------------------
For each author in the bibliography, list the author`s name and the titles 
of all books by that author, grouped inside a \"result\" element.
----------------------------------------------------------------
<results>
  {
    let $a := doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib/bib.xml\")//author
    for $last in distinct-values($a/last),
        $first in distinct-values($a[last=$last]/first)
    order by $last, $first
904
    return
905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918
        <result>
            <author>
               <last>{ $last }</last>
               <first>{ $first }</first>
            </author>
            {
                for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")/bib/book
                where some $ba in $b/author 
                      satisfies ($ba/last = $last and $ba/first=$first)
                return $b/title
            }
        </result>
  }
</results> 
919 920
*)

921 922 923 924 925 926
<results>
select <result> ([a] @
                  flatten(select [b]/Title
                  from b in [doc]/Book
                  where member(a,[b]/Author) ))
from a in distinct_values( [doc]/Book/Author );;
927 928


929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938
<results>
select <result>([a] @(select t
                     from <bib>[l::Book+] in [doc],
                          <book ..>[t&Title a2::Author+ ;_] in l
                     where member(a,a2) ))                                        
from a in distinct_values(
          select a
          from <bib>[b::Book+] in [doc],
               <book ..>[Title la::Author+ ;_ ] in b,
               a in la);;
939 940 941 942




943 944
";"q5","
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006
	     
(*
---------------------------Q5------------------------------------
For each book found at both bstore1.example.com and bstore2.example.com, 
list the title of the book and its price from each source.
-----------------------------------------------------------------

<books-with-prices>
  {
    for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book,
        $a in doc(\"http://bstore2.example.com/reviews.xml\")//entry
    where $b/title = $a/title
    return
        <book-with-prices>
            { $b/title }
            <price-bstore2>{ $a/price/text() }</price-bstore2>
            <price-bstore1>{ $b/price/text() }</price-bstore1>
        </book-with-prices>
  }
</books-with-prices>
1007

1008
*)
1009 1010 1011



1012 1013 1014 1015 1016
type Reviews =<reviews>[Entry*];;
type Entry = <entry> [ Title Price Review];;
(*type Title = <title>[PCDATA];;*)
(*type Price= <price>[PCDATA];;*)
type Review =<review>[PCDATA];;
1017

1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039
let amazon=
<reviews>[
    <entry>[
        <title>['Data on the Web']
        <price>['34.95']
        <review>
               ['A very good discussion of semi-structured database
               systems and XML.']
     ]
    <entry>[
        <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
        <price>['65.95']
        <review>
               ['A clear and detailed discussion of UNIX programming.']
     ]
    <entry>[
        <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
        <price>['65.95']
        <review>
               ['One of the best books on TCP/IP.']
    ]
];;
1040

1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050
<books-with-prices>
select <book-with-price>[t1 <price-amazon>([p2]/Char) <price-bn>([p1]/Char)]
from b in [doc]/Book ,
     y in [b]/@year,
     t1 in [b]/Title,
     e in [amazon]/Entry,
     t2 in [e]/Title,
     p2 in [e]/Price,
     p1 in [b]/Price
 where t1=t2;;
1051 1052 1053



1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060
<books-with-prices>
select <book-with-price>[t2 <price-amazon>p2 <price-bn>p1 ]
from <bib>[b::Book*] in [doc],
     <book year=y ..>[t1&Title _* <price>p1] in b,
     <reviews>[e::Entry*] in [amazon],
     <entry>[t2&Title <price>p2 ;_] in e
where t1=t2;;
1061 1062


1063 1064 1065

";"q6","
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;

let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131
(*	     
-------------------------------Q6----------------------------------
For each book that has at least one author, list the title and first two authors, 
and an empty \"et-al\" element if the book has additional authors.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
<bib>
  {
    for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book
    where count($b/author) > 0
    return
        <book>
            { $b/title }
            {
                for $a in $b/author[position()<=2]  
                return $a
            }
            {
                if (count($b/author) > 2)
                 then <et-al/>
                 else ()
            }
        </book>
  }
</bib>
1132

1133
*)
1134

1135

1136 1137 1138 1139
<bib>
select <book>[t  !a  !etal]
from <bib>[b::Book*] in [doc],
     <book ..>[t&Title a::(Author Author) Author&(etal:=[<et-al>[]]) ;_] | <book ..>[t&Title (a::(Author+)) (etal:=[])  _*] in b;;
1140

1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151
";"q8","
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;
1152

1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190
let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
(*
---------------------------------Q8-----------------------------------
Find books in which the name of some element ends with the string \"or\" 
and the same element contains the string \"Suciu\" somewhere in its content. 
For each such book, return the title and the qualifying element.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1191 1192


1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201
for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book
let $e := $b/*[contains(string(.), \"Suciu\") 
               and ends-with(local-name(.), \"or\")]
where exists($e)
return
    <book>
        { $b/title }
        { $e }
    </book> 
1202

1203
*)
1204 1205


1206

1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213
<result> 
select <book>[t element ]
from <bib>[b::Book*]in [doc],
     <book ..>[t&Title elements::Any*] in b,
     <(atom)>_&element  in elements,
     [_* 'or']          in [ (string_of(atom)) ],
     <_>[_* 'Suciu' _*] in [element]//<_>[Char*];;
1214 1215


1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227
";"q9","(*-----------------------------Q9-------------------------------------
In the document \"books.xml\", find all section or chapter titles that 
contain the word \"XML\", regardless of the level of nesting.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
<results>
  {
    for $t in doc(\"books.xml\")//(chapter | section)/title
    where contains($t/text(), \"XML\")
    return $t
  }
</results> 
*)
1228 1229 1230 1231




1232 1233 1234 1235
type Chapter = <chapter>[Title Section*]
type Section = <section>[Title Section*]
type Title = <title>[PCDATA];;
 
1236 1237


1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253
let doc : Chapter= 
<chapter>[
    <title>['Data Model']
      <section>[
        <title>['Syntax For Data Model']
      ]
      <section>[
        <title>['XML']
        <section>[
            <title>['Basic Syntax']
        ]
        <section>[
            <title>['XML and Semistructured Data']
        ]
      ]
];;
1254

1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267
select  t
from t in [doc]//Section/<title>[_* 'XML' _* ];;
";"q11","
type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;
1268

1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325
let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
	     
	     
	     
(*
--------------------------------Q11------------------------------------------
For each book with an author, return the book with its title and authors. 
For each book with an editor, return a reference with the book title and the editor`s affiliation.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<bib>
{
        for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book[author]
        return
            <book>
                { $b/title }
                { $b/author }
            </book>
}
{
        for $b in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book[editor]
        return
          <reference>
            { $b/title }
            {$b/editor/affiliation}
          </reference>
}
</bib>  
1326 1327 1328

*)

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<bib>((
select <book>(([b]/Title) @ ([b]/Author))
from b in [doc]/<book ..>[_ Author;_])
@
(select <reference>(([b]/Title) @ ([b]/Editor/Affiliation))
from b in [doc]/<book ..>[_ Editor;_]     
));;
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<bib>((
select <book>([t] @ la)
from <bib>[b::Book+] in [doc],
     <book ..>[t&Title la::Author+ ;_] in b
)@(
select <reference>[t aff]
from <bib>[b::Book+] in [doc],
     <book ..>[t&Title _* <editor>[_* aff&Affiliation] ;_] in b));;
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<bib>
select <(tag)>([t] @ [a1] @a2)
from <book ..>[t&Title ((tag:=`book)&a1&Author a2::Author* | (tag:=`reference)&a1&Editor a2::Editor*) _*] in [doc]/Book;;
		       
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";"q12","type Bib = <bib>[Book*]
type Book = <book year=String>[Title  (Author+ | Editor+ ) Publisher Price ]
type Author = <author>[Last  First ]
type Editor = <editor>[Last  First  Affiliation ]
type Title  = <title>[PCDATA ]
type Last  = <last>[PCDATA]
type First  = <first>[PCDATA]
type Affiliation = <affiliation>[PCDATA]
type Publisher  = <publisher>[PCDATA]
type Price  = <price>[PCDATA];;
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let doc : Bib = <bib>[
             <book year=\"1994\">[
                  <title>['TCP/IP Illustrated']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens']
                  <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"1992\">[
                  <title>['Advanced Programming in the Unix environment']
                  <author>[<last>['Stevens'] <first>['W.']]
                  <publisher>['Addison-Wesley']
                  <price>['65.95']
             ]
             <book year=\"2000\">[ 
                  <title>['Data on the Web']
                  <author>[<last>['Abiteboul'] <first>['Serge']]
                  <author>[<last>['Buneman'] <first>['Peter']]
                  <author>[<last>['Suciu'] <first>['Dan']]
                  <publisher>['Morgan Kaufmann Publishers']
                  <price>['39.95']
            ]
            <book year=\"1999\">[
                  <title>['The Economics of Technology and Content for Digital TV']
                  <editor>[
                      <last>['Gerbarg'] <first>['Darcy']
                      <affiliation>['CITI']
                  ]
                  <publisher>['Kluwer Academic Publishers']
                  <price>['129.95']
             ]];;
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(*
---------------------------------------------Q12----------------------------------------
Find pairs of books that have different titles but the same set of authors (possibly in a different order).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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<bib>
{
    for $book1 in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book,
        $book2 in doc(\"http://bstore1.example.com/bib.xml\")//book
    let $aut1 := for $a in $book1/author 
                 order by $a/last, $a/first
                 return $a
    let $aut2 := for $a in $book2/author 
                 order by $a/last, $a/first
                 return $a
    where $book1 << $book2
    and not($book1/title = $book2/title)
    and deep-equal($aut1, $aut2) 
    return
        <book-pair>
            { $book1/title }
            { $book2/title }
        </book-pair>
}
</bib> 
*)
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flatten(
select   select <book-pair>[!([b1]/Title) !([b2]/Title) ]
          from a in [b2]/Author
          where (member(a,[b1]/Author))
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from b1 in [doc]/Book,
     b2 in [doc]/Book
where not([b1]/Title = [b2]/Title)
)
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(*
reste a retirer les doublons. besoin de l opérateur order pour ca.
*)
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"; ]
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let present = "<ul><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=qatt1\">Attributes and elements.</a> 
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Part 1
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=qatt2\">Attributes and elements.</a> 
Part 2
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=qatt3\">Attributes and elements.</a> 
Part 3
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=xml\">XML elements.</a> 
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XML elements.
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=functions\">Functions.</a> 
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Several syntaxes to define functions.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=mutrec\">Mutual recursion.</a> 
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Mutual toplevel definition for types and functions.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=sequence\">Sequence literals.</a> 
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How to write sequences.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=seqtypes\">Sequence types.</a> 
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Types for sequences.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=integers\">The factorial function.</a> 
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What about computing 10000! ?
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=sumtype\">Sum types.</a> 
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How to simulate ML sum types.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=ovfun\">Overloaded functions.</a> 
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This examples demonstrates the use of overloaded functions.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=note\">Footnotes.</a> 
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 This example shows how to bind an XML element with surrounding text.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=biblio\">Bibliography.</a> 
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The good old XML bibliography example.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=projection\">Projection.</a> 
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Syntactic sugar for projection.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=xtransform\">Tree transformations.</a> 
How to perform XSLT-like transformations.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=reference\">References.</a> 
Mutable values.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=pm_compil\">Compilation of pattern matching.</a> 
This example demonstrates the efficient compilation of pattern
matching.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q1\">Q1.</a> 
Q1 Query: List books published by Addison-Wesley after 1991, including their year and title.
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q2\">Q2.</a> 
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Q2 Query: Create a flat list of all the title-author pairs, with each pair enclosed in a &quot;result&quot; element.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q3\">Q3.</a> 
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Q3 Query: For each book in the bibliography, list the title and authors, grouped inside a &quot;result&quot; element.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q4\">Q4.</a> 
Q4 Query: For each author in the bibliography, list the author`s name and the titles 
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of all books by that author, grouped inside a &quot;result&quot; element.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q5\">Q5.</a> 
Q5 Query: For each book found at both bstore1.example.com and bstore2.example.com, 
list the title of the book and its price from each source.
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q6\">Q6.</a> 
Q6 Query: For each book that has at least one author, list the title and first two authors, 
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and an empty &quot;et-al&quot; element if the book has additional authors.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q8\">Q8.</a> 
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Q8 Query: Find books in which the name of some element ends with the string &quot;or&quot; 
and the same element contains the string &quot;Suciu&quot; somewhere in its content. 
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For each such book, return the title and the qualifying element.
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q9\">Q9.</a> 
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Q9 Query: In the document &quot;books.xml&quot;, find all section or chapter titles that 
contain the word &quot;XML&quot;, regardless of the level of nesting.
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</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q11\">Q11.</a> 
Q11 Query: For each book with an author, return the book with its title and authors. 
For each book with an editor, return a reference with the book title and the editor`s affiliation.
</li><li><a href=\"/cgi-bin/cduce?example=q12\">Q12.</a> 
Q12 Query: Find pairs of books that have different titles but the same set of authors (possibly in a different order).
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</li></ul>"